Cytomel is a prescription medication used to treat the symptoms of low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) and enlargement of the thyroid gland (toxic goiter), myxedema and myxedema coma. Cytomel can be used alone or in combination with other drugs. Cytomel belongs to a group of drugs called antithyroid drugs.
Mechanizm of actijn of Cytomel in the body
The effect of each drug is based on the properties of the active substance. If we consider a fat burner like Cytomel, it is interesting to note that triiodothyronine T3 is used in its manufacture. This hormone is produced by the thyroid gland. It was recently synthesized and has quickly found its uses. Cytomel can accelerate the body’s metabolism and help athletes who want to get rid of excess weight. The product accelerates cellular activity so that proteins, fats and carbohydrates are metabolized very quickly.
Before competitions, Cytomel, based on triiodothyronine, is used to eliminate fat deposits and excess fluids while keeping the diet unchanged. The drug is often combined with clenbuterol to increase its effect, resulting in a powerful effect. The athlete’s muscles become more attractive and sculpted. The drug can also be used in combination with anabolic agents to begin building muscle mass while eliminating fat deposits.
Thiodothyronine (T3, 3,5,3′-L-triiodothyronine) is a thyroid hormone secreted directly (in small amounts) and externally (mainly as a result of peripheral triiodination of thyroxine (T4)) from the gland. T3 enters the nucleus of cells and interacts with specific nuclear receptors on target tissues, which determines its biological activity. This interaction leads to the transcriptional activation of several genes.
In the pituitary and peripheral tissues, the effects of thyroid hormones are regulated by local deiodinases, which convert T4 to the more active T3, whose molecular effects in certain tissues depend on the subtypes of T3 receptors and their interaction with other ligands, coactivators and corepressors, as well as on the activation or repression of specific genes.
Inadequate T3 production is primarily due to dietary iodine deficiency, but less frequently to defects in genes encoding proteins involved in T3 biosynthesis. Low iodine intake triggers a so-called adaptive mechanism involving an increase in the proportion of T3 synthesized, which increases the metabolic efficiency of thyroid hormones. In the absence of trace elements such as selenium in the diet, the conversion of T4 to T3 is reduced.
Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of homeostasis and metabolism of human and mammalian cells and tissues. They are essential for physical and mental development. Insufficient production of thyroid hormones during fetal organ formation and during childhood can lead to various pathologies, including central nervous system disorders, and consequently to growth retardation and mental retardation. In adulthood, hypothyroidism leads to metabolic disorders, memory loss, depressive disorders and reduced fertility. The use of combination drugs (levothyroxine sodium + liothyronine) for the treatment of hypothyroidism has been widely discussed and controversial conclusions have been drawn. This article discusses the metabolic effects of T3, the most active thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormones are not indicated for the treatment of inflammatory symptoms (dry skin, fatigue, constipation, reproductive disorders, stunted growth, or obesity) without laboratory confirmation of hypothyroidism, as they can cause hyperthyroidism in patients with hypothyroidism. Each patient’s dose should be individually adjusted based on clinical response and thyroid function tests.
Thyroid hormone therapy usually begins with low doses, which are gradually increased until a euthyroid state is achieved, after which maintenance doses are used. However, this is not necessary in neonates where it is important to achieve hypothyroidism quickly; treatment can be started with a full replacement dose. The risk of rapid dose escalation is lower in younger patients than in older patients.
In hypothyroid patients with adrenal insufficiency or panhypopituitarism, correction of adrenal insufficiency should be considered before thyroid hormone replacement therapy, because acute adrenal insufficiency with accelerated metabolism is possible. Maintenance therapy with glucocorticoids may also be required in prolonged or severe hypothyroidism, including myxedema.
In hypothyroidism patients with myxedema or cardiovascular disease, the initial dose of thyroid hormones should be very low and gradually increased, as this may lead to angina, coronary artery blockage, or stroke. If cardiovascular reactions occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose of thyroid hormones.
Side effects of Cytomel
Cytomel is generally considered a hormone that is very well tolerated by most healthy adults; healthy adults except those with hypothyroidism. Side effects of Cytomel are usually associated with high doses of the hormone or overdose, but individual nature cannot be ruled out as a factor. Possible side effects of Cytomel:
- Increased intestinal peristalsis
- Menstrual disturbances
Very high doses or overexposure to the T3 hormone can also cause complications. Cytomel side effects in this category include:
- Chronic heart failure
Overall, Cytomel is a very safe thyroid medication, but abuse, especially long-term use of high doses, can be life-threatening.
The last side effect of Cytomel to be discussed is the development of hypothyroidism. Many people are wary of using this hormone because of the possibility of conditional hypothyroidism, which can occur after discontinuing use. It is believed that when use is discontinued, the body will no longer produce enough of its own T3 and fat will accumulate. While it is possible to become addicted, this is unlikely with proper use. Proper use depends not only on the dose and duration of use, but also on how we discontinue use. Use should not be stopped abruptly. Instead, the dose should be reduced to maintenance for a short period of time to give the thyroid a chance to recover. For a healthy person who has not abused Cytomel, recovery should not be a problem.